Madhushala / The Tavern

I am reading my favorite excerpts from Harivanshrai Bachchan’s poem Madhushala / The Tavern at the Festival of Listening (celebrating untranslated poetry). It is on Tuesday, March 1st at (SCENE) Metrospace, 7.00 pm.

Like any great poem, the more I read it, the more I admire its nuances. Here are the paragraphs I plan to read, followed by their English translation. I hope you enjoy!

Hindi

मदिरालय जाने को घर से चलता है पीनेवला,
‘किस पथ से जाऊँ?’ असमंजस में है वह भोलाभाला,
अलग-अलग पथ बतलाते सब पर मैं यह बतलाता हूँ –
‘राह पकड़ तू एक चला चल, पा जाएगा मधुशाला।’। ६।

सुन, कलकल़ , छलछल़ मधुघट से गिरती प्यालों में हाला,
सुन, रूनझुन रूनझुन चल वितरण करती मधु साकीबाला,
बस आ पहुंचे, दुर नहीं कुछ, चार कदम अब चलना है,
चहक रहे, सुन, पीनेवाले, महक रही, ले, मधुशाला।।१०।

लाल सुरा की धार लपट सी कह न इसे देना ज्वाला,
फेनिल मदिरा है, मत इसको कह देना उर का छाला,
दर्द नशा है इस मदिरा का विगत स्मृतियाँ साकी हैं,
पीड़ा में आनंद जिसे हो, आए मेरी मधुशाला।।१४।

धर्मग्रन्थ सब जला चुकी है, जिसके अंतर की ज्वाला,
मंदिर, मसजिद, गिरिजे, सब को तोड़ चुका जो मतवाला,
पंडित, मोमिन, पादिरयों के फंदों को जो काट चुका,
कर सकती है आज उसी का स्वागत मेरी मधुशाला।।१७।

लालायित अधरों से जिसने, हाय, नहीं चूमी हाला,
हर्ष-विकंपित कर से जिसने, हा, न छुआ मधु का प्याला,
हाथ पकड़ लज्जित साकी को पास नहीं जिसने खींचा,
व्यर्थ सुखा डाली जीवन की उसने मधुमय मधुशाला।।१८।

बने पुजारी प्रेमी साकी, गंगाजल पावन हाला,
रहे फेरता अविरत गति से मधु के प्यालों की माला’
‘और लिये जा, और पीये जा’, इसी मंत्र का जाप करे’
मैं शिव की प्रतिमा बन बैठूं, मंदिर हो यह मधुशाला।।१९।

एक बरस में, एक बार ही जगती होली की ज्वाला,
एक बार ही लगती बाज़ी, जलती दीपों की माला,
दुनियावालों, किन्तु, किसी दिन आ मदिरालय में देखो,
दिन को होली, रात दिवाली, रोज़ मनाती मधुशाला।।२६।

अधरों पर हो कोई भी रस जिहवा पर लगती हाला,
भाजन हो कोई हाथों में लगता रक्खा है प्याला,
हर सूरत साकी की सूरत में परिवर्तित हो जाती,
आँखों के आगे हो कुछ भी, आँखों में है मधुशाला।।३२।

मुसलमान औ’ हिन्दू है दो, एक, मगर, उनका प्याला,
एक, मगर, उनका मदिरालय, एक, मगर, उनकी हाला,
दोनों रहते एक न जब तक मस्जिद मन्दिर में जाते,
बैर बढ़ाते मस्जिद मन्दिर मेल कराती मधुशाला!।५०।

कभी न सुन पड़ता, ‘इसने, हा, छू दी मेरी हाला’,
कभी न कोई कहता, ‘उसने जूठा कर डाला प्याला’,
सभी जाति के लोग यहाँ पर साथ बैठकर पीते हैं,
सौ सुधारकों का करती है काम अकेले मधुशाला।।५७।

सुमुखी तुम्हारा, सुन्दर मुख ही, मुझको कन्चन का प्याला
छलक रही है जिसमें माणिक रूप मधुर मादक हाला,
मैं ही साकी बनता, मैं ही पीने वाला बनता हूँ
जहाँ कहीं मिल बैठे हम तुम़ वहीं गयी हो मधुशाला।।६४।

दो दिन ही मधु मुझे पिलाकर ऊब उठी साकीबाला,
भरकर अब खिसका देती है वह मेरे आगे प्याला,
नाज़, अदा, अंदाजों से अब, हाय पिलाना दूर हुआ,
अब तो कर देती है केवल फ़र्ज़ – अदाई मधुशाला।।६५।

छोटे-से जीवन में कितना प्यार करुँ, पी लूँ हाला,
आने के ही साथ जगत में कहलाया ‘जानेवाला’,
स्वागत के ही साथ विदा की होती देखी तैयारी,
बंद लगी होने खुलते ही मेरी जीवन-मधुशाला।।६६।

यम आयेगा साकी बनकर साथ लिए काली हाला,
पी न होश में फिर आएगा सुरा-विसुध यह मतवाला,
यह अंतिम बेहोशी, अंतिम साकी, अंतिम प्याला है,
पथिक, प्यार से पीना इसको फिर न मिलेगी मधुशाला।८०।

ढलक रही है तन के घट से, संगिनी जब जीवन हाला
पत्र गरल का ले जब अंतिम साकी है आनेवाला,
हाथ स्पर्श भूले प्याले का, स्वाद सुरा जीव्हा भूले
कानो में तुम कहती रहना, मधु का प्याला मधुशाला।।८१।

मेरे अधरों पर हो अंतिम वस्तु न तुलसीदल प्याला
मेरी जीव्हा पर हो अंतिम वस्तु न गंगाजल हाला,
मेरे शव के पीछे चलने वालों याद इसे रखना
राम नाम है सत्य न कहना, कहना सच्ची मधुशाला।।८२।

मेरे शव पर वह रोये, हो जिसके आंसू में हाला
आह भरे वो, जो हो सुरिभत मदिरा पी कर मतवाला,
दे मुझको वो कान्धा जिनके पग मद डगमग होते हों
और जलूं उस ठौर जहां पर कभी रही हो मधुशाला।।८३।

और चिता पर जाये उंढेला पात्र न घ्रित का, पर प्याला
कंठ बंधे अंगूर लता में मध्य न जल हो, पर हाला,
प्राण प्रिये यदि श्राध करो तुम मेरा तो ऐसे करना
पीने वालों को बुलवा कऱ खुलवा देना मधुशाला।।८४।

नाम अगर कोई पूछे तो, कहना बस पीनेवाला
काम ढालना, और ढालना सबको मदिरा का प्याला,
जाति प्रिये, पूछे यदि कोई कह देना दीवानों की
धर्म बताना प्यालों की ले माला जपना मधुशाला।।८५।

जो हाला मैं चाह रहा था, वह न मिली मुझको हाला,
जो प्याला मैं माँग रहा था, वह न मिला मुझको प्याला,
जिस साकी के पीछे मैं था दीवाना, न मिला साकी,
जिसके पीछे था मैं पागल, हा न मिली वह मधुशाला!।९०।

बड़े-बड़े नाज़ों से मैंने पाली है साकीबाला,
कलित कल्पना का ही इसने सदा उठाया है प्याला,
मान-दुलारों से ही रखना इस मेरी सुकुमारी को,
विश्व, तुम्हारे हाथों में अब सौंप रहा हूँ मधुशाला।।१३५।

English

Seeking wine, the drinker leaves home for the tavern.
Perplexed, he asks, “Which path will take me there?”
People show him different ways, but this is what I have to say,
“Pick a path and keep walking. You will find the tavern.”

Hark! The wine gurgles and splashes as it falls from the goblet.
Hark! It sounds like the tinkling of bells on the feet of an intoxicated girl.
We have reached there, a few steps are we from the tavern,
Hark! Hear the laughter of the drinkers, as the fragrance of the tavern wafts through the air.

Call it not lava, though it flows red, like a tongue of flame.
Call it not the blistered heart, for it is only foaming wine.
Lost memories serve the wine, that intoxicates with pain.
If you find happiness in suffering, come to my tavern.

He who has burnt all scriptures with his inner fire,
Has broken temples, mosques and churches with carefree abandon,
And has cut the nooses of pandits, mullahs and priests —
Only he is welcome in my tavern.

Alas, he that with eager lips, has not kissed this wine,
Alas, he that trembling with joy, has not touched a brimming goblet,
He that has not drawn close the coy wine-maiden by her hand,
Has wasted this honey-filled tavern of Life.

My beloved wine-maiden seems a priest; her wine as pure as the Ganga’s waters.
With unbroken pace, she rotates the rosary of wine glasses.
“Drink more! Drink more!” she intones in prayer.
I am Shiva incarnate and this tavern is my temple.

Only once every year, the fires of Holi are lit.
Only once is the game played and are garlands of lamps lit.
But, O, those who are lost in the world, come and see the tavern any day,
The tavern celebrates a Holi, every morning and a Diwali every night.

Whatever the taste on my lips, it tastes like wine.
Whatever the vessel in my hands, it feels like a goblet.
Every face dissolves into the features of my wine-maiden,
And whatever be in front of my eyes, they fill only with visions of the tavern.

Muslim and Hindu are two, but their goblet is one.
One is their tavern, one is their their wine.
Both remain one unless they visit mosques, temples
Mosques and temples create differences, the tavern brings them together

Never heard one say, “He touched my wine”
Never one said, “He smeared my goblet”
People from every caste sit and drink together
Work of a hundered reformers is done by a tavern alone

Ah, Beautiful, your lovely face is like a crystal bowl,
Whose precious gem is your beauty, sparkling like sweet, intoxicating wine.
I am the wine-maiden and I am the guest.
Where sit we together, there indeed is the tavern.

A mere two days she served me but the young maiden is sulking now.
She fills my goblet and passes it curtly to me.
Her coquetry and charms are lost arts;
All the tavern wishes now is to fulfil its obligations.

Life is short. How much love can I give and how much can I drink?
They say, “He departs,” at the very moment that he is born.
While he is being welcomed, I have seen his farewell being prepared.
They started closing the shutters of the tavern, as soon as they were raised.

Yama will come as the wine-maiden and bring his black wine,
Drink, and know no more consciousness, O carefree one.
This is the ultimate trance, the ultimate wine-maiden and the ultimate goblet.
O traveller, drink judiciously, for you will never find the tavern again.

When from the earthen jar of my body, the wine of life is emptied,
When the final wine-maiden comes with her bowl of poison,
When my hand forgets the touch of the goblet, and my lips the taste of wine,
Whisper in my ears, “the wine, the goblet, the tavern!”

Touch not my lips with tulasi, but with the goblet, when I die.
Touch not my tongue with the Ganga’s waters, but with wine, when I die.
When you bear my corpse, pallbearers, remember this!
Call not the name of God, but call to the truth that is the tavern.

Weep over my corpse, if you can weep tears of wine.
Sigh dejectedly for me, if you are intoxicated and carefree.
Bear me on your shoulders, if you stumble drunkenly along.
Cremate me on that land, where there once was a tavern.

Pour on my ashes, not ghee, but wine.
Tie to a vine of grapes, not a waterpot, but a wine-goblet.
And when, my darling, you must call guests for the ritual feast,
Do this – call those who will drink and have the tavern opened for them.

If anyone asks my name, say it was, “The Drunkard”.
My work? I drank and passed the goblet to everyone.
O Beloved, if they ask my caste, say only that I was mad.
Say my religion worshipped goblets and then chant with your rosary, “The tavern, the tavern!”

The wine that I wished for, I did not get that wine
The goblet that I asked for, I did not get that goblet
The maiden I was crazy after, I did not get that maiden
The one that I was mad after, I did not find that tavern

I have raised this maiden with immense pride
Who has always lifted the goblet of imagination
Keep this beloved with care and heart
World, I am submitting in your hands my tavern!

Translation from: allpoetry.com

Going Multimodal

This is a reblog of a post I wrote for Inside Teaching in December 2015.

No matter what courses you teach, you have probably found yourself in a situation where you are looking for better ways to express a complicated idea or complex phenomenon. Whether it be the theory of evolution, the inner-workings of a human mind, or how an internal combustion engine works, we have found ourselves in a position where we are thinking, “Hmm…how can I best explain this?” Out of many things we care about—when it comes to our students—one of the most critical challenges is to teach with clarity, without opening new doors for misconceptions, and without increasing their cognitive load.

There are several approaches one can take to solve this problem. You can spend more time discussing a topic, you can assess students on their understanding and address missteps, deconstruct it into simpler problems, or you could find better ways to explain these topics so you can convey the essential ideas with utmost clarity, without losing their inherent complexity. The last of the aforementioned approaches is the one I am interested in discussing more. This is the multimodal approach to texts. Or, simply put, using multimodal texts. In this post, I will explain what multimodal texts are and share an example of how we can integrate them with regular instruction.

Multimodal?

The word multimodal means multiple modes of representation. In other words, using more than one mode of representation to convey the same idea. For example, written text or alphabetic text is one mode of representation. But, it is only one mode. There are obviously more. Some scholars have defined five modes of representation as important to teaching. These are written text, aural, visual, spatial, and gestural (Anstey & Bull, 2010). Each of these modes has its own affordances and constraints. Alphabetic texts are great at sending a message across, but they can also lead to multiple interpretations or ambiguity at times, and lead to further misconceptions. Visuals, which we all knowingly or unknowingly use in our instruction, are better at giving a sense of size, color, space, etc. When looking at a picture, you do not have to start from left to right or top to bottom. You are free to explore the space as you “read” the image. The rules are obviously different. What is even better is that using two or more of these modes of representation together can enrich our understanding of a topic as they can be designed to act as complementary to each other.

Simply Multimodal

Think of yourself trying to explain a complicated topic. For the sake of argument, let us use internal combustion engine as an example. According to Wikipedia, internal combustion engine is “an engine that generates motive power by the burning of gasoline, oil, or other fuel with air inside the engine.” A lot of you are not engineers, let alone mechanical engineers. Just by reading this definition may give you a sense of what it means, but most of that understanding is your prior experience or knowledge on the topic or engines in general. Now, let me add another mode to the mix. Here is an image of an internal combustion engine that I searched online and found at University of Tennessee’s website (Breinig, 2009)


Now, although this image adds more terms to the understanding, it gives us a better sense of what this engine looks like. We see what the definition meant when we look at the figure and find a cylinder or an exhaust valve. We add some meaning to our previous understanding by making links between the definition and the image. To make it even better, I found a GIF, with an easy Google search, from Wikipedia, by Zephyris. It shows how the engine looks when working:

This is a .gif image of a four-stroke engine in motion.Including the GIF adds motion. The image changes in time to give a better sense of how these parts interact with one another. Now, not only we know what the definition and key parts of an internal combustion engine are, we also know how they work. Overall, we can say that each modality has its affordances and constraints. The way we combine these modes together can enhance the overall learning experience, making the sum more than its parts.

Beginning Your Multimodal Journey

No matter how complex or simple-looking the concepts we teach, we need to look beyond the use of traditional alphabetic texts. We need to understand it is natural for students to ask for the look and feel of concepts, even especially when we are dealing with the more abstract. Students can use multimodal texts to get an overall understanding of the topic and create a picture of how things work in their heads. By limiting ourselves to alphabetic texts, we make it harder for students to fathom some of the topics we may take for granted. If you are interested in integrating multimodal texts in your classrooms, I recommend searching for copyright free content that is easily available online. For instance, for images, you can start with Creative Commons search, and for sounds, I recommend Incompetech. Using these, you also choose to make videos using YouTube’s free video editor. Giphy.com is also a fun resource to create GIFs from existing videos. If you wish to read more about multimodal texts, I recommend starting from Anstey and Bull’s website.

Let us start thinking beyond traditional texts, and find new ways to including multimodal texts in our instruction. As we wrap up this semester and begin to think about designing our curriculum for the next semester, I urge you to consider the following questions:

  • What are some of the most complicated topics to teach next semester?
  • How can I best explain these topics to my students?
  • What modes of representation would allow me to capture the essence of these topics and make them easier to understand without losing their complexity?
  • Out of the five modes of representation shared here, which ones will be the most essential?
  • Finally, can I spare 15 minutes to play with creating these multimodal texts for my class?

References:

Anstey, M., & Bull, G. (2010, June 4). Helping teachers to explore multimodal texts. Retrieved April 13, 2015, from http://www.curriculum.edu.au/leader/helping_teachers_to_explore_multimodal_texts,31522.html?issueID=12141

Breinig, M. (2009). Car engines. Retrieved 10 December 2015, from http://electron6.phys.utk.edu/101/CH8/internal_combustion_engines.htm


Creating a Successful Teacher Professional Development Program

This week we returned with another edition of the MAET Webinar — The Bridge. If you have not had a chance to look at what MAET Bridge is, check out our website here: bridge.educ.msu.edu.

Our aim at MAET Bridge is to bring together great resources that help create free professional development opportunities for teachers.  This week we brought together an amazing panel of guests made of experts in teacher professional development in K12 or university level. In this webinar, we discussed what it takes for them to create a successful teacher professional development program and what role does technology play?

In this video, check out our discussion with Dr. Melissa McDaniels, Amber White, and Ashlie O’Connor.

Ironically, we had our share of the challenge with technology this week. For every webinar, we use Google Hangout-On-Air, which has proved to be the most convenient way for us to live broadcast. After every live session which is broadcast on YouTube, a video is also automatically saved for us to share later. However, we have also had occasional difficulties with Hangouts-On-Air when it comes to consistency. For instance, in past, at separate occasions, it crashed mid-session, it’s toolbox plugins decided not to work, there was a significant delay between audio and video in the final recording on some occasions, and so on.

This week, Google Hangout-On-Air tried a new way to annoy us. Despite showing a live session to us as hosts, its YouTube live stream refused to work. Our technical team (which is two other graduate students like me) worked for an entire hour to solve this problem. Unfortunately, there was nothing we could do, and we had to rely on Google fixing itself and eventually saving a recording of the live session. It worked.

Although all our promotion went in vain and we left our live viewers waiting, we did manage to share the final recordings with them. But, more importantly, we learnt a valuable lesson: despite all the technical prowess and expertise you can bring together, technology can still betray you. Sometimes there is nothing you can do but fail. What is important to understand is that it is OK to fail. Things happen, and things will happen, that will be beyond your control. These things will happen when you are integrating tech in your class in front of your students, or during your PD sessions in front of adult learners. Even after a ton of practice, things can fail on you. Just remind yourself that you embrace the failure and own it. Make sure that your crowd knows what you learn from that failure. In fact, fail again, fail better.